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Public Policy

- Oktober 23, 2020
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Public Policy

Penelitian, Riset Opini


Public policy action by govt respond specified circumstance. Purpose: expand public good

Public study: research on policy topics

Public advising: practice of providing info to policy makers

Public Policy (PP) should be
Multi disciplinary
Problem solving

Multi disc: sociology economics law politics etc

Problem solving: the more issue happen, more pp
But not all issue handled
Agenda setting, academia, activist
Address on priority
Based on happening issue

The more happening, the more govt give attention
Social media become mainstream in society. Blewn up. Attract a lot attention

Normative: should not be cloaked in the guise of scientific objectivity
Should recognize the impossibility of separating goals and means, or values and techniques

There are many actors who influence to agenda setting and policy making process
How big opportunity to address it
Unknown politician

Renewable energy in parliament commission v. Only 1-2 people who interest

The actors who bring the issue is not powerful enough to policy makers

Agenda setting is the first move
To choose the actors who will talk

It's not ideal world
PP is about priority

PP approach
Policy analysis

Policy process studies
Policy change studies
Policy making studies
Policy implementation studies

Policy analysis
What problem, causes, instruments needed to address problem
Identify, investigate

Policy design
Produce clear connection between assumed causes, instrument

Policy evaluation, produce normative knowledge between outcome output

Policy process studies
Enable us to understand dynamic of policy making

Different element composing the whole process

Spesific attention to the role of context

Steps. PP life cycle
Discussion n debate 》 Political action 》 legislative proposal 》 law and regulation 》 compliance 》 debate so on.

There are opportunity to change after implementation based on compliance, discussion and debate

PP process
Problem identification 》 policy formulation 》 policy adoption 》 policy implementation 》 policy evaluation 》 back to problem identification etc

LIPI is thinktank of govt
Badan kebijakan fiskal

Not sharp as independent evaluator

They are part of govt. Fund from govt. Hv limitation

Most of evaluation done by independent, such as university, activist, NGO etc

Ideal evaluation
Output meet the implementation

Problem identification
What is problem/issue
What will role of govt
What is agenda
Issue come to attention of govt through interest group, organization, court cases, member of congress, bureaucratic agencies, individual citizens

Challenge: differing opinions and priorities

Policy formulation
What are steps that will be taken to solve the issue
Will the issue be dealt with all at once or stages

Challenge: different solution proposed by different individual, group, etc

Policy adoption
What course of action will the govt ultimately take
Will it be new legislation or executive order

Time consuming process
Can be difficult and often times controversial

Policy implementation
How will it be applied to real situations
How will the govt make sure the general public will know about it
What consequences for individual, states, organization that do not follow it

Challenge: uniformity and equal application of the law to all levels of govt

Policy evaluation
What positive changes have resulted
What the challenge
What the unforeseen problems
What hv been the unexpected cost

Will policy be evaluated in the same way by different govt entities
Throw out the policy or amend it?

Political agenda
Set of issues thought by public or people in power to merit action by govt

Question to consider
Current political values
Weight of custom n tradition
Impact of events

Policy actors
Constitutional responsibilities
Legislative, executives, judiciary

Unofficial actors
Participation with explicit legal authority
Interest group, media, citizens, think tank, political parties (but hv strong because hv arm) oligarchic chain

PP instruments
Legislation and govt policy and priorities
Budget, taxation
Persuasion, public pressure
Inspection, audit
Provision of service
Press release

Things to keep in mind
Pp constantly changing. Reshape, modified etc
Pp inferred from actions and behavior of govt agencies involve overtime
Policy is process
Complex, multiple levels
There will be winner and losers in policy making process

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